heritable units of expression that determine the physical characteristics of a cell.
things into which one can peek to determine the sex of an individual.
always present in a cell in two similar copies that may be slightly different, often called alleles.
present only in very simple organisms like viruses.
is a mathematical equation that predicts the physical traits of offspring.
is immutable and cannot be changed.
can be demonstrated only for simple organisms like bacteria.
describes the mechanism by which parents pass physical traits to offspring.
deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA.
ribonucleic acid or RNA.
maintaining chromosome structure.
converting the stored infomation to a more readily accessible format.
reproducing the genetic information.
correcting damage to the genetic information.
of minor genetic importance.
of key structural significance to maintaining chromosome structure.
a consequence of control of levels of gene expression.
caused by the presence of viruses that insert themselves into the chromosome structure.
of minor importance to chromosomal function.
is controversial and poorly understood.
of crucial importance to gene function.
very different from all other naturally occcuring molecules.
a phosphorylated sugar backbone.
individual components called amino acids.
individual components called nucleotide bases.
complete structural symmetry.
only adenine (A) and thymine (T).
only guanine (G) and cytosine (C).
both uracil (U) and thymine (T).
adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C)
adenine (A), uracil (U), guanine (G), and cytosine (C)
single-stranded with little, if any internal base pairing.
single-stranded with extensive internal base pairing.
A with C and G with T.
A with U and G with C.
A with T and G with C.
C with T and A with G.
it facilitates easy introduction of base changes to allow rapid evolution of gene function.
it allows production of an accurate RNA copy for use by the protein assemby machinery of a cell.
the pairing of the bases with each other generates a chemical stability that completely protects them from interaction with other cellular components.
changes that do occur in one strand of a double-stranded DNA molecule can be passed on to progeny.
A with C and G with U.
C with U, A, or G.
the structure of the sugar-phosphate backbone.
the order of the nucleotide bases on the sugar-phosphate backbone.
the specificity with which chromosomal proteins can interact with specific DNA sequences.
the ability of the DNA molecule to be directly used to produce a protein by attachment of the protein-assembly machinery to the DNA template.
the instable chemical nature of RNA.
the ability of RNA to be recognized by the protein assembly machinery of the cell.
the ability of amino acids to correctly align along the RNA molecule to assemble the desired gene product.
the resistance of the RNA molecule to rearrangemnt within a cell.
the temperature of the DNA solution.
the amount of salt in the DNA solution.
the pH of the DNA solution.
the size and base composition of the DNA molecule.
the two molecules have exactly the same sequence.
the two molecules have exactly complementary sequences.
the two molecules have sufficient sequence identity to allow extensive double-stranded regions with some mismatched bases.
the two molecules have sufficient sequence complementarity to allow extensive double-stranded regions with some mismatched bases.